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Citation Styles: APA Reference Lists

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Journal/Magazine Articles: General Reference Formats

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)

DOIs appear in two formats:

  1. The original DOI format displayed DOIs as alphanumeric strings. For example, 10.1037/0278-6133.27.3.379.
  2. The updated format displays DOIs as permanent URLs. For example, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024996.

Either DOI format is acceptable (APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 2012, p. 5).

Find a DOI with the free DOI lookup.

Audiovisual Media: General Reference Formats

For a motion picture, use the following format:

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (year). Title of motion picture [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Streaming video (e.g., YouTube video)

Author, A. A. [user name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

User name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

References With 8 or More Authors

"When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author's name" (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 184).

Schwartz, S. J., Weisskirch, R. S., Hurley, E. A., Zamboanga, B. L., Park, I. J. K., Kim, S. Y., . . . Greene, A. D. (2010). Communalism, familism, and filial piety: Are they birds of a collectivist feather? Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16, 548–560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021370

Websites: General Reference Formats

"When citing an entire website or page, and not any document in particular on that website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in the text (no reference list entry is needed)" (APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 2012, p. 32).

"Provide a retrieval date for references when the content changes over time, such as for nonarchived social media pages" (APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 2012, p. 32).

For examples of optional description of format phrases, see page 2 of the APA Style Guide to Electronic References.

General Reference Format

Author, A. A. (year). Title of document [optional description of format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Corporate Author. (year). Title of document [optional description of format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Author is missing

Title of document [optional description of format]. (year). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Date is missing

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of document [optional description of format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Corporate Author. (n.d.). Title of document [optional description of format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Date is missing, but can be reasonably approximated

Author, A. A. (ca. year). Title of document [optional description of format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Corporate Author. (ca. year). Title of document [optional description of format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Title is missing

Author, A. A. (year). [Description of document]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Corporate Author. (year). [Description of document]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Author and date are both missing

Title of document [optional description of format]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Author and title are both missing

[Description of document]. (year). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Entry in Wikipedia

Title of entry. (year, month day). In Wikipedia. Retrieved month day, year, from http://xxxxxxxxx

Archived entry in Wikipedia

Title of entry. (year, month day). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx

Books, Reference Books, and Book Chapters: General Reference Formats

For an entire print book, use the following reference formats:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of book: Subtitle (xx ed.). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B., & Editor, C. C. (Eds.). (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

For an entire online book, use the following reference formats:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of book. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Author, A. A. (year). Title of book. doi:xxxxx

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of book. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of book. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B., & Editor, C. C. (Eds.). (year). Title of book. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B., & Editor, C. C. (Eds.). (year). Title of book. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

For a chapter in a book or entry in a reference book, use the following formats:

Author, A. A, & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A, & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Author, A. A, & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxxx

For an entry in a reference work with no author, use the following formats:

Title of entry. (year). In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Title of entry. (year). In Title of reference work (xx ed., Vol. xx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxx

References to Legal Materials

"References to legal materials . . . which include court decisions, statutes, other legislative materials, and various secondary sources, are more useful to the reader if they provide the information in the conventional format of legal citations . . . . For . . . information on . . . legal references, consult the latest edition of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation" (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 216).

Court Decisions

"There are six main citation styles used by Canadian case reporters" (Bluebook, 2015, p. 333). Each style is acceptable.

1. "Reporters for which the year constitutes the volume number" (Bluebook, 2015, p. 333).

<case name>, [<year of report>] <abbreviation of report> <first page> (<country abbreviation> <province abbreviation, if applicable> <court abbreviation, if applicable>).

Chase v. Campbell, [1962] S.C.R. 425 (Can).

2. "Reporters that begin at volume one each year, and are thus organized by year first, then volume number" (Bluebook, 2015, p. 333).

<case name>, [<reporter year>] <volume number> <reporter abbreviation> <first page> (<country abbreviation> <province aabbrevaition, if applicable> <court abbreviation, if applicable>).

R. v. Gladstone, [1996] 2 S.C.R. 723 (Can.).

"Include the year of decision when it is different from the reporter year:"

<case name> (<year of decision>), [<reporter year>] <volume number> <reporter abbreviation> <first page> (<country abbreviation> <province aabbrevaition, if applicable> <court abbreviation, if applicable>).

Swiss Bank Corp. v. Air Can. (1987), [1988] 1 F.C. 71 (Can. C.A.).

3. "Reporters that are divided into series, and are thus organized by series first, then volume number" (Bluebook, 2015, p. 334).

<case name> (<year of decision>), <volume number> <reporter abbreviation> <series> <first page> (<country abbreviation> <province abbreviation, if applicable> <court abbreviation, if applicable>).

Weber v. Ont. Hydro (1992), 98 D.L.R. 4th 32 (Can. Ont. C.A.).

4. "Reporters that are organized by volume only" (Bluebook, 2015, p. 334).

<case name> (<year of decision>), <volume number> <reporter abbreviation> <first page> (<country abbreviation> <province abbreviation, if applicable> <court abbreviation, if applicable>).

R. Chehimi (I.Y.) (2007), 419 A.R. 336 (Can. Alta. Q.B.).

5. "Neutral citations" (Bluebook, 2015, p. 335).

<case name>, <year of decision> <neutral citation court abbreviation> <document number>, <parallel citation, if desired> (<country abbreviation if not evident from context> <province abbreviation, if applicable>).

MacDonald v. Taubner, 2006 ABQB 138 (Can.).

R. v. Fuhrer, 2007 ABQB 58, 413 A.R. 385 (Can.).

6. "Case citations to electronic systems" (Bluebook, 2015, p. 335).

CanLII citation format:

<case name>, <year of decision> CanLII <document number> (<country abbreviation> <province abbreviation, if applicable> <court abbreviation, if applicable>).

Delgamuukw v. British Columbia, 1991 CanLII 2372 (Can. B.C. Sup. Ct.).

Statutes

A statute is a law created by a legislature.

"Cite current consolidated statutes using the citation provided" (Bluebook, 2015, p. 338).

"Always provide the country abbreviation unless it is clear from the context. Always provide a province abbreviation unless the province of origin is made clear in the title of the act or the publication abbreviation" (Bluebook, 2015, p. 339).

Examples

Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c C46 (Can.).

Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, RSBC 1996, c. 165 (Can. B.C.).

Citing Electronic Sources

  • Are you citing articles you found in an EBSCOhost or ProQuest database?

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